Aids and Services


  • Preferential seating

  • Planned seating: bus, classroom, lunchroom, auditorium, other

  • Alter physical room arrangement (Specify:__________)

  • Use study carrels or quiet areas

  • Define area concretely (e.g., carpet squares, tape on floor, rug area)

  • Reduce/minimize distractions: visual, spatial, auditory, movement

  • Teach positive rules for use of space


Pacing of Instruction

  • Extended time requirements

  • Vary activity often

  • Allow breaks

  • Omit assignments requiring copying in timed situations

  • Send an additional copy of the text home for summer preview

  • Provide a home set of materials for preview or review


Presentation of Subject Matter

Teach to the student’s learning style/strength intelligences:

  • Verbal/Linguistic, Logical/Mathematical, Visual/Spatial, Naturalist, Bodily/Kinesthetic, Musical, Interpersonal, Intrapersonal

  • Use active, experiential learning

  • Use specialized curriculum

  • Record class lectures and discussions to replay later

  • Use American Sign Language and/or total communication

  • Provide prewritten notes, an outline, or an organizer (e.g., mind map)

  • Provide a copy of a classmate’s notes (e.g., use NCR paper, photocopy)

  • Use functional and meaningful application of academic skills

  • Present demonstrations and models

  • Use manipulatives and real objects in mathematics

  • Highlight critical information and main ideas

  • Pre-teach vocabulary

  • Make and use vocabulary files, or provide vocabulary lists

  • Reduce the language level of the reading assignment

  • Use facilitated communication

  • Use visual organizers/sequences

  • Use paired reading/writing

  • Reduce seat time in class or activities

  • Use diaries or learning logs

  • Reword/rephrase instructions and questions

  • Preview and review major concepts in primary language



  • Limit amount of material on a page

  • Record text and other class materials

  • Use study guides and advanced organizers

  • Use supplementary materials

  • Provide note-taking assistance

  • Copy class notes

  • Scan tests and class notes into computer

  • Use large print

  • Use Braille material

  • Use communication book or board

  • Provide assistive technology and software


Specialized Equipment or Procedure

  • Wheelchair

  • Standing Board

  • Computer

  • Electronic Typewriter

  • Modified Keyboard

  • Switches

  • Catheterization

  • Braces

  • Customized mealtime

  • Walker

  • Positioning

  • Computer software

  • Video

  • Voice Synthesizer

  • Augmentative communication device

  • Suctioning

  • Restroom equipment


Assignment Modification

  • Give directions in small, distinct steps (written/picture/verbal)

  • Use written backup for oral directions

  • Use pictures as a supplement to oral directions

  • Lower difficulty level

  • Raise difficulty level

  • Shorten assignments

  • Reduce paper and pencil tasks

  • Read or record directions to student

  • Give extra cues and prompts

  • Allow student to record or type assignments

  • Adapt worksheets and packets

  • Use compensatory procedures by providing alternate assignments, when demands of class conflict with student capabilities

  • Ignore spelling errors/sloppy work

  • Ignore penmanship



  • Provide pictorial or written daily or weekly schedule

  • Provide student calendars

  • Check often for understanding/review

  • Request parent reinforcement

  • Have student repeat directions

  • Teach study skills

  • Use binders to organize material

  • Design/write/use long-term assignments timelines

  • Review and practice real situations

  • Plan for generalization by teaching skills in several environments


Testing Adaptations

  • Provide oral instructions and/or read test questions

  • Use pictorial instructions/questions

  • Read test to student

  • Preview language of test questions

  • Ask questions that have applications in real settings

  • Administer test individually

  • Use short answer, multiple-choice, shorten length

  • Extend time frame, use open note/book tests

  • Modify format to reduce visual complexity or confusion


Social Interaction Support

  • Use natural peer supports and multiple, rotating peers

  • Use peer advocacy

  • Use cooperative learning group

  • Institute peer tutoring

  • Structure opportunities for social interaction (e.g., Circle of Friends)

  • Focus on social process rather than end product

  • Structure shared experiences in school and extracurricular activities

  • Teach friendship, sharing, and negotiation skills to classmates

  • Teach social communication skills

  • Greetings

  • Conversation

  • Turn-taking

  • Sharing

  • Negotiation


Level of Staff Support


(Consider after considering previous categories)

  • Consultation

  • Stop-in support

  • Team Teaching (parallel, supportive, complimentary, or co-teaching)

  • Daily in-class support

  • Total staff support (staff are in close proximity)

  • One-on-one assistance

  • Specialized personnel support (If indicated, identify time needed)



  • Instructional Support Assistant

  • Health care assistant

  • Behavior Assistant

  • Signing assistant

  • Nursing

  • Occupational therapy

  • Physical therapy

  • Speech and language therapist

  • Augmentative and communication specialist

  • Transportation

  • Counseling

  • Adaptive physical education

  • Transition planning

  • Orientation/mobility

  • Career counseling

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